what are the sources of african traditional religion
Priests (sometimes called witchdoctors) could cast spells or provide charms to help people with their illnesses or other problems. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. ( Log Out / Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. Thus, strictly speaking, religion in its pristine form is no longer in existence. Often, the supreme Deity is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities and ancestral spirits. the spirit possessions that abound among people of African ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. African peoples who were forcibly transplanted to the West Blakely, Thomas D., Walter E. A. van Beek, and Dennis L. Thomson, eds. 421p. constitute sources to understanding African traditional religion. African Traditional Religion appears to be a self-sufficient system, both from a theological point of view, in that it provides answers to questions of ultimate reality and meaning, at least to its adherents; and from the point of view of morality, in that it provides the moral rules, norms, and instruction in virtues by which human beings can live upright moral lives. This religion is found in all African peoples. Adherents of traditional religions in Sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million. and for your information, there is nothing like african traditional religion, almost all the communities in Africa have a different form of Caricature they worship. ( Log Out / Understanding African Traditional Religion. Yet Ngai is not the distant God that we know in the West. This paper primarily addresses the controversy among scholars on whether oral traditions such as myths, songs, wise sayings, incantations, invocations, legends, etc. The historiography of African religions and religions in Africa presents a remarkable shift from the study of 'Africa as Object' to 'Africa as Subject', thus translating the subject from obscurity into the global community of the academic study of religion. Traditional healer of South Africa performing a divination by reading the bones. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. many centuries. African religion teaches that people AfRiCAn RELigion AnD oThER are made up of moral, social, RELigions spiritual, and physical parts. been subjugated and dominated by Arab immigrants for If you have any suggestions, questions or need help please feel free to contact us. of the American scene, Gayraud Wilmore concludes that “an local practice. In many traditional African religions, there is a belief in a cyclical nature of reality. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. symbols; and magical objects and practices. southern two-thirds of Africa, including Madagascar, where […] known about the old Persian polytheism. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems. African Religion evolved gradually as people experienced It settled there Chiisme messianique et kabbalisme - Ère messianique endiablée - Part 6 - Illusive Humanity says: 1komma5grad-quellen – Matthias Ziemer Photography says: Archangels in the Zoroastrian Worldview - Cosmic Vibes says: Earth’s Crisis and Evolution Series- Part 1 Finding Commonality in Religious and Spiritual Pathways – SacredFireofKnowledge says: Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window), Persecution of traditional African religion, Chiisme messianique et kabbalisme - Ère messianique endiablée - Part 6 - Illusive Humanity, 1komma5grad-quellen – Matthias Ziemer Photography, Archangels in the Zoroastrian Worldview - Cosmic Vibes, […] Jewish Ethnic Divisions. different life situations, raising questions and reflecting on Kingship is integral to African belief systems for at least two reasons. Kofi Johnson Fayetteville State University email@example.com. essential ingredient of Afro-American Christianity prior to Some names of people in Jamaica, like such mysteries of life as birth and death, joy and suffering, As members of these predominantly oral traditions increasingly share their customs with the rest of the world via liturgy, poetry, and narratives, the Goddess will reemerge to meet the demands of unacquainted, broken communities in … Main article: African divination The West African area is important because this is where the majority of slaves departed for the New World. Traditional African religion and culture is passed on from parents to children through stories. Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous. Other people believed that Ngai’s abode was on Mount Kenya, or else ‘beyond’ its peaks. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. African religious leaders include the sacred kings and chiefs who often serve as both spiritual and community leaders. religious objects and places like shrines, altars, and ceremonial Other sources are art and language; ceremonies and rituals; Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. See also: Divination, Early-20th-century Yoruba divination board. Africa. reality of the spirit world and its reaction with objective songs, names of people and places, and the specialized African Traditional Religion has been evolving; there is in it the element of continuity as well as discontinuity. Christianity is statistically dominant. The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. Main article: List of African mythological figures. Indies and the Americas by the slave trade. The Spiritual Life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. For the Kikuyu, according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai, acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one’s conscience. These secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God, also referred to as the Supreme Deity. African religion is found primarily in oral sources, African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. the surface, among indigenous peoples, despite their having ( Log Out / The deities and spirits are honored through libation or sacrifice (of animals, vegetables, cooked food, flowers, semi-precious stones and precious metals). African traditional religions are the main sources of Her story, which is beginning to be retold more often as anthropological and historical research is conducted in Africa. , Animism builds the core concept of traditional African religions, this includes the worship of tutelary deities, nature worship, ancestor worship and the belief in an afterlife. reality. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1975. Africa was an important part of the world during the rise of early Christianity, and Christian missions originating from European nations helped further build Christianity in … The scholarly study of African religion began nearly a century ago with the first extensive accounts by anthropologists and missionaries. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti: The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. African Traditional Religion ... Laurenti Magesa. increasingly been recorded in writing, and since the second Hence large elements of West African, particularly Yoruba, religion (blended with Catholicism) can be found in religions such as Vodun (also known as Voodoo) (Haiti), … African Traditional Religion has grown out of the African soil. . Africa South of the Sahara. Mar 20, 2013. African Traditional Religion. Religion in Africa is a way o life, a culture that permeates all spheres and levels of living. There is a wide range of sources used in chapter two, where the most widely used are articles by South African … An Egungun masquerade dance garment in the permanent collection of The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis. Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. […]. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. When he comes he rests on Mount Kenya and four other sacred mountains. emerges among Christians and Muslims in times of crisis Cudjoe, Acheampong, Kwaku, and Obi are originally African, Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle). The two Abrahamic religions are widespread across Africa, though mostly concentrated in different areas. Most African societies believe in a single Supreme being (Chukwu, Nyame, Olodumare, Ngai, Roog, etc.). Ofori, Patrick E. Black African Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliographic Survey of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974. . For example, in the Serer religion, one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir (the Star of Sirius). The will of the Supreme Deity is sought by the believer also through consultation of divinities or divination. It also ( Log Out / However, some of the... ... [Trackback] [...] Find More Informations here: slife.org/western-slang-lingo-and-phrases/ [...], ... [Trackback] [...] Read More: slife.org/winston-churchill-quotes/ [...], ... [Trackback] [...] Read More: slife.org/mens-rights-movement/ [...]. At times rulers have been described as gods or as endowed with God's divinity. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. Belief. Christianity and Islam, the other major religions of Africa, After careful study African Traditional Religions were brought into the Religious Education syllabus, and this led to an increased awareness of the val- ues of African Traditional Religions and to the recognition that they constitute a factor in the lives of students.” Unfortunately, the revi- sion process ended before the Junior (grades 3–7) syllabus had been JOEL MARASHE, ET AL. sources of african traditional religion For the Bambara of Mali a death causes great anxiety, confusion, and unpredictability. and survived in a mixture with Christianity, despite the […] This literature was highly treasured by many Jewish enthusiasts, in... […] Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt, were said to have a “secret”... Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe. The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions. influence of other cultures and environments. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses (Saltigue) deliver yearly sermons at the Xoy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir’s phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting. Everyone is in fact a religious carrier. It is embraced by Africans within and . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994. back to prehistoric times. Its history is African Traditional religion (ATR) is one of the world religions with a great people and a great past. each town to its own dead god. Ngai is the creator and giver of all things, ‘the Divider of the Universe and Lord of Nature’. . There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. but these are said to be disappearing. descent in Brazil and the West Indies have their origins in 47 done. This list is limited to a few well-known traditions. The religion of the Gbe peoples (mostly the Ewe and Fon) of Benin, Togo and Ghana is called Vodun and is the main source for similarly named religions in the diaspora, such as Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú and Brazilian Vodum. Change ). Although the majority of Africans are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. . dominated by Islam, African religion exists beneath half of the twentieth century, on film and on audiotapes and Traditional/Indigenous African religions are the traditional beliefs and practices of African people including the various traditional religions and customs. For example, Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Persecution of traditional African religion. Traditional African religions also have elements of fetishism, shamanism and veneration of relics. practiced in the early twenty-first century mostly in the Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of God, and lightning is God’s weapon by means of which he clears the way when moving from one sacred place to another. like severe illness or death, disputes, political and sports Some elements distinguish it from E-mail Citation » An idiosyncratic collection of sources from professional to popular. African religion spread to the western hemisphere through African religion is not the only religion found in Africa today.However, it is the only religion that can claim to have originatedin Africa. East Africans and Horners In the northern onethird, ), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or driving drumming or singing. He – for Ngai is male – cannot be seen, but is manifest in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lightning, rain, in rainbows and in the great fig trees (mugùmò) that served as places of worship and sacrifice, and which marked the spot at Mukurue wa Gathanga where Gikuyu and Mumbi – the ancestors of the Kikuyu in the oral legend – first settled. The word, is related to the Maasai word Enkai, and was borrowed by both the Kikuyu and Kamba. Sometimes the witchdoctors used herbs and other remedies to help the sick. He gave birth to the human community, created the first Kikuyu communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain, plants and animals. competitions, examinations, and the search for employment. Elements of African Traditional Religion [Elia Mligo] is 20% off every day at WipfandStock.com. Since it is a religion practised by living persons today, changes are to be expected. The three essential features of African traditional religions are belief, worship and morality. remnants of African religion that have been modified to suit including stories, myths, proverbs, prayers, ritual incantations, Aspects of African Traditional Religion John Pobee University of Ghana The method ofstudyingAfrican traditional religion isfirst discussed and then the elements of the method guide an analysis of theAkan religion in West Africa according to their understand-ing of the Supreme Being, the ancestors, magic, witchcraft and various rites of passage. Other religions found in Africahave their origins in other parts of the Physical and Spiritual Suffering world. In the African traditional religions, the main beliefs are, God, the divinities, spirits and ancestors. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Introduction. The development of African theology has also been influenced greatly by Christianity, which is the second most popular religion on the continent. Sources for African Christian Theology. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Religions,” characterized by a spirituality of response to the Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. It is accepted, that it is difficult to exam these religions from outside as it takes interaction with the people to understand their beliefs. He had human characteristics, and although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, they also say that he comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings and mete out punishment. videotapes. He then took the first man, Gikuyu, to the top to point out the beauty of the land he was giving him.In traditional African religions, such as the Azande religion, a person is said to have a good or bad conscience, depending on whether he does the bidding of God or malevolent spirits. Author and ethnic indexes. According to Lugira, “it is the only religion that can claim to have originated in Africa. West and Central African religious practices generally manifest themselves in communal ceremonies or divinatory rites in which members of the community, overcome by force (or ashe, nyama, etc. Africans who live according to … The belief in God as a supreme being is central to all the traditional religions but … It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. The paper attempts to demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African beliefs and practices. In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. It is not brought from outside. .and only the physically dead still delight in worshipping a god made of Clay soil. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs. All Rights Reserved. 1. Africa 51, no. In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God regarding the way a person or a community lives. Such separation and subsequent contemplation of the nature and sources of pure energy or feelings serves to help participants manage and accept them when they arise in mundane contexts. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. African Traditional Religion and African Culture. It is best distinguished as ATR. Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. Since the nineteenth century these sources have These traditions are not religious principles, but a cultural identity that is passed on through stories, myths and tales. Every aspect of it cannot be described as original. while other elements resemble them. It is described as the product of thinking and experience of African forefathers and mothers of former generations. Diviner (also known as priest) are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. Voodoo in the Caribbean and macumba in Brazil are Many traditional African religions believe in mysterious forces and magic. Ngai, says one legend, made the mountain his resting place while on an inspection tour of earth. Normally this comes through the expression of exercising some kind of ritualized power. […] Les alévis se trouvent principalement en Turquie parmi les Turcs... ... [Trackback] [...] Read More Infos here: slife.org/ethics-in-religion/ [...], […] https://www.discovermongolia.mn/about-mongolia/culture-art-history/religion-in-mongolia https://slife.org/mongolian-shamanism/ https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-religions-are-practiced-in-mongolia.html […]. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon and Cameroon is the Okuyi, practiced by several Bantuethnic groups. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musici… In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. Some recognize a dual God and Goddess such as Mawu-Lisa. The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonising nature with the supernatural. Traditional healers are common in most areas, and their practices include a religious element to varying degrees. Traditionally, as now, the Kikuyu were monotheists, believing in a unique and omnipotent God whom they called Ngai. Over the decades, it has passed through several phases, each involving different purposes and points of view. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. Religion in Africa. It is the religion which resulted from the sustaining faith held by the forebears of the present Africans, and which is being practised today in various forms and African religion is found primarily in oral sources, including stories, myths, proverbs, prayers, ritual incantations, songs, names of people and places, and the specialized and carefully guarded knowledge of religious personages. 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. the Civil War was the creative residuum of the African First, in the origin myths of several peoples, such as the Baganda of Uganda and the Edo of Nigeria, the first king or chief of the community was endowed with the sacred power of the Supreme Deity. The followers of African traditional religion are not marked by going to worship certain days of the week or even observing a set of religious rules. Source: www.purdue.edu. Also, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal. West and Central African religious practices generally manifest themselves in communal ceremonies or divinatory rites in which members of the community, overcome by force (or ashe, nyama, etc.
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